The globally installed SHP capacity is estimated at 78 GW in 2016, an increase of approximately 4 per cent compared to data from WSHPDR 2013. The total estimated SHP potential has also increased since publishing WSHPDR 2013 to 217 GW, an increase of over 24 per cent. Overall, approximately 36 per cent of the total global SHP potential has been developed as of 2016 (Figure 2).
SHP represents approximately 1.9 per cent of the world’s total power capacity, 7 per cent of the total renewable energy capacity and 6.5 per cent (< 10 MW) of the total hydropower capacity (including pumped storage). As one of the world’s most important renewable energy sources, SHP is fifth in development, with large hydropower having the highest installed capacity to date, followed by wind and solar power (Figure 3).
China continues to dominate the SHP landscape. Fifty-one per cent of the world’s total installed capacity (definition of below 10 MW) and approximately 29 per cent of the world’s total SHP potential are located in China. It has more than four times the SHP installed capacity of Italy, Japan, Norway and the United States of America (USA) combined. Together, the top five countries—China, Italy, Japan, Norway and the USA account for 67 per cent of the world’s total installed capacity (Figure 4).
While the USA has developed a majority of its potential, reaching 57 per cent of its developed potential in 2016, Brazil has much of its SHP potential undeveloped, reaching only 30 per cent in 2016. Nevertheless, since the publishing of WSHPDR 2013, Brazil has increased its installed capacity by 34 per cent (up to 30 MW). The USA, however, had decreased 46 per cent in installed capacity based on more accurate data in 2015. Europe has the highest SHP development rate, with nearly 48 per cent of the overall potential already installed (Figure 5).
Japan and India also have a less developed SHP sector, reaching only 35 and 18 per cent of developed potential in 2016 respectively. Compared to WSHPDR 2013, India’s total installed capacity has increased by 18.6 per cent (up to 25 MW). Japan, however, has increased 0.8 per cent.
Largely due to the dominance of China in SHP, Asia has the highest share of installed SHP capacity, with 50,729 MW, constituting approximately 65 per cent of the total share. Oceania, on the other hand, has the lowest share, with approximately 1 per cent of the total global installed SHP capacity (Figure 6).
While Asia continues to have the largest installed capacity and potential for SHP up to 10 MW, Europe has the highest percentage of SHP development, with Western Europe having 85 per cent of its potential already developed.
The Americas and Africa have the third- and fourth-highest installed capacity and potential of all five regions. In the Americas, most of the SHP is concentrated in Northern America and South America. However, the two smaller regions—the Caribbean and Central America—have yet to carry out conclusive assessments to determine their actual SHP potentials. In 2016, the Americas reached a developed SHP rate of 18 per cent. Nonetheless, Africa has a larger gap to fill as its SHP development rate is at less than 5 per cent. Eastern Africa, in particular, is the sub-region that has the most SHP potential, but also the least to be developed (Figures 7, 8 and Table 2).
Regionally, Asia has shown the highest increase in installed capacity, expanding its capacities by 33 per cent as compared to data from WSHPDR 2013. Africa has the second largest increase, by 10 per cent. However, due to the region’s initial low levels of SHP installed capacity, the increase actually translates to a mere 54 MW. Thus the number is relatively little when compared to the 4,462 MW increase in Asia.
Of the 160 countries studied, approximately half of them have established national or local feed-in tariffs (FITs) or other similar fiscal incentives for SHP generators. A number of countries, such as Egypt and the Dominican Republic, have established FITs for renewable energy, but not specifically for hydropower. In other cases, such as in Mozambique and Ethiopia, FITs have been drafted and are pending for implementation. In Gambia the establishment of FITs has been declared mandatory as a part of the new energy law. However, it has not been implemented yet.
For more details please download the full document via below link: World Small Hydropower Development Report 2016